Those who disbelieve say: The Hour will never come unto us. Say : Nay, by my Lord, but it is coming unto you surely. (He is) the Knower of the Unseen. Not an atom's weight, or less than that or greater, escapeth Him in the heavens or in the earth, but it is in a clear Record.
(Saba 3. Verse)
In ancient times, a well-known theory called the Theory of Atomicism was widely accepted. This theory was originally proposed by a scholar named Demokritos, who lived by the Greeks, especially about 23 centuries ago. Demokritos and the people who came after him assumed that the smallest unit of matter was atoms. Greek means "atomos", "indivisible". The Arabs used to believe that. The Arabic word "zarrah" meant atoms most commonly. Recently, modern science has discovered that it is possible to even separate an atom. It is a development of the 20th century that the atom could be split further. 14 centuries ago this concept seemed unusual even for an Arab. For him, the jot was an impenetrable border.
When scientists searched the nucleus of atoms, they discovered smaller particles, such as electrons, protons and neutrons. They also discovered that protons and neutrons are made up of smaller particles called quarks. Quarks are considered the basic particles that make up the matter. Even the world's largest particle accelerator cannot break the quark of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva. In the LHC, particles accelerating in a tunnel with a 27 km perimeter at speeds close to the speed of light collide with each other, revealing great energy during these collisions (13.5 TeV). So far, however, no quark has been observed in this energy. They have plans to build larger accelerators with a 100km radius, but it is not known whether the energy they will generate will be enough to break the quarks.
The miracle of this verse is that it speaks of what is smaller than an atom, and it occurs at a time when no one knows anything about atoms. In fact, a long time ago, the atom was thought to be the smallest object in the universe; smaller components are a very new discovery. But that's exactly what the Qur'an is talking about. God (c.c.) says, "Less than that."
God knows best of all.