Or (the condition of the deniers) is like darkness in a deep sea. There covereth him a wave, above which is a wave, above which is a cloud. Layer upon layer of darkness...
Jabir bin Hayyan
(Khorasan 721 - Iraq 815)
The Muslim scientist Jabir Ibn Hayyan was the first to distinguish liquids according to their different boiling points. It is believed that he invented the refining and crystallization methods of Nitric Acid, Hydrogen Chloride and Sulfuric Acid; invented King's Water and discovered Citric Acid, Acetic Acid and Tartaric Acid.
He developed the "retort" and contributed to the development of Chemistry with the concept of "base" he introduced. His work Kitab al-Kimya, which was translated into Latin in the 12th century, became the origin of the words Alchemy and Chemistry.