Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth, and when He decrees a thing, He merely “s to it: “Be”! And it is.
(Al-Baqarah 117. Verse)
Before creation, there was no matter, no energy, no space or time. A noun to express this absence, or an adjective to describe it, did not exist in dictionaries. We cannot fully comprehend the concepts of timelessness or spacelessness. The Qur'an clearly states that the universe has a beginning and that Allah has caused this beginning.
Did not those who disbelieve see that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece? Then We parted them? And We have created every living thing from water. Will they not then believe?
(Al-Anbiya 30. Verse)
The Big Bang Theory implies that an extremely small point that occurred about 14 billion years before our time has expanded and expanded by moving to space dimensions, and the energy, which was previously a ball with matter and antimatter, later formed the whole universe with the time dimension. According to the Qur'an, while the heavens and the places were adjacent, God separated them with Bing Bang. The Qur'an explained centuries ago that everything in the universe was primarily a whole, and that the universe was expanding at all times, that is, the main features of the Big Bang. The end of this verse is interesting, "Those who disbelieve ... Will they not then believe?" It ends with its address. It is as if this verse has clearly come down to the people of our time. Almighty God persistently asks the non-scientific, out-of-date deniers, who still stubbornly reject the realities of modern science: "Will they not then believe?".
Then He directed towards the sky that was a smoke. Then (He) said to it (the sky) and the earth: “Come both of you willingly or unwillingly”. They both said: “We came willingly”.
(Fussilat 11. Verse)
After the Big Bang, Almighty Allah commanded the Heaven and the Earth, which became a nebula mass, to take your places according to the law of attraction. Thus, the elements and matter that became planets and stars began to cool, come together and form, following the natural laws established by Allah in the universe.
In our current understanding, galaxies are born when large clouds of dust and gas collapse under their gravitational pull, allowing stars to form. Similarly, a star and its planets consist of a collapsing cloud of dust and gas in a larger cloud called Nebula. Therefore, it is not fair to say that the heavens and the earth are made of gas. Instead, the most appropriate word is "Smoke", which consists of gas and dust.
And He it is Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They float, each in an orbit.
(Al-Anbiya 33. Verse)
The Qur'an also states that Allah created the sun, the moon, and the planets, each with their own routes or orbits.
Neither the Arabs nor others knew this theory of the formation of the universe in the time when the Qur'an was revealed. At the time, the stars were thought to be fixed and gravel. The Koran says they float. They need to be free to swim, not hanging or gravel on something. That is to say, what the Qur'an says is contrary to the thought of the universe at the time, and as the knowledge progressed, it confirmed what the Qur'an said.
Surely your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days,
(Al-A'raf 54. Verse)
The Arabic word "eyyamin" in the verse appears several more times in the Qur'an, each expressing a different measure of time. The measure of the day in one verse is equal to 50,000 years (70:4), while in another verse it is 1,000 years (22:47). Thus, it is understood that the meaning here is six times, periods.
In 1915, Einstein argued that time was relative, and that the flow coefficient of time had changed depending on the location, the speed of the traveler and the gravitational force at the time. Given the differences in the flow coefficient of time, the creation time of the universe reported in seven different verses in the Qur'an is in great parallel with scientists' estimates. Because given the rememit of time, "day" refers only to a 24-hour period of time detected on Earth, with today's conditions. But elsewhere in the universe, at another time and condition, "day" is a much longer period of time. 1https://sorularlaislamiyet.com/yerler..
Big Bang in theory, the number of periods involved in the creation of the heavens and the earth (solar system) is mentioned in the Qur'an.
Six periods of creation; 1- Chaos period, 2- Hadron period, 3- Lepton period, 4- Atom period, 5- Galactic period and 6- Star period.2https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981NASCP2156....1C/abstract
Expansion of the Universe
And the sky; We built it with great Might and most surely We are the One Who expands (it).
(Adh-Dhariyat 47. Verse)
Alexander Friedmann and Georges Lemaitre theoretically calculated that the universe was in constant motion and expanded in the early 20th century. The verification of the expanding universe theory was finally carried out in 1929 by the well-known American astronomer Edwin Hubble.
The Arabic word "musiun" in arabic means "expander". The former commentators interpreted it as a breadth of power because they lacked today's scientific data.
This expression of the Qur'an is remarkable. It tells us not only that Allah has expanded the universe, but that it is now expanding. Although the expansion of the universe from its starting point has been known since Hubble's observations, it has been assumed for decades that expansion has slowed. However, this expectation was disrupted in the 1990s by the discovery that while the expansion of the universe was slowing, it suddenly began to accelerate about 5 billion years ago.
God knows best of all.