And We have built above you seven strong (heavens),
We created an illuminating and warm lamp that caught fire.
(An-Naba 12-13 verses)
Blessed be He Who hath placed in the heaven mansions of the stars, and hath placed therein a great lamp and a moon giving light!
(Al-Furqan 61. Verse)
It was believed by previous civilizations that the moon had emitted its own light. While the Bible refers to the sun and the moon as only two different lights in size, the Qur'an distinguishes between them using different terms: light for the moon and lamp for the sun (sirâc).
Lighting tools with fuel are called sirac. Like kindling, oil lamps, lamps. Based on this, the sun's energy source is present from itself and does not take it from another source.
Nur means light that spreads around and allows us to see the item. Because the source was not self-contained and reflected the light it received from the sun, the moon was called 'Nur'.
The energy of the sun is produced by burning hydrogen, which is the main component of the sun and turns into very high density, pressure and helium. The surface temperature of the sun is 5500 degrees Celsius and the temperature of the nucleus is 15.6 million degrees. This leads to a nuclear reaction and the fusion of four hydrogen atoms to make a helium atom. The energy leftover from this reaction is released into the form of electromagnetic energy divided into short wave rays, infrared rays and ultraviolet rays. One in 2 million of the energy coming out of the sun reaches the earth. The energy emitted by the sun in three days is equivalent to all oil, trees, natural gas, etc. in the world.
This means that the sun is extracted from the earth by a natural nuclear reaction under very high pressure, heat and density from the inside, like a mega atomic stack to provide light, temperature and energy to the earth.
More than fourteen centuries ago, the Glorious Qur'an exemplified the difference between stars and planets in the difference between the sun and the moon. Modern astronomers discovered this fact only after the telescope was invented and after applying photometric and spectrogram research on stars and planets. Stars are bright celestial bodies, and planets are dark celestial bodies that reflect light from the stars and the sun.
The sun is a mega atomic pile floating very fast in space and has many different forms of light, heat and energy. It's not just a shiny disc; It's more like a glowing lamp, and the moon is a planet that reflects sunlight to illuminate the night on earth. The Qur'an also defines the sun as a glowing or burning lamp to show how it burns with light and flame. This is the same as the scientific explanation of the sun as a high energy producer. There is nothing in the Qur'an that contradicts what we know about these two celestial bodies today.
A man in the prophet's time can easily distinguish between the Sun, which is well known to the inhabitants of the desert, and the moon, the body of the coolness of the night. Therefore, the comparisons made in this regard in the Qur'an are quite normal. What is interesting to note here is the measured nature of the comparison, and the text of the Qur'an does not have any comparison elements that may prevail at that time and appear as fantasies today.
And He it is Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They float, each in an orbit.
(Al-Anbiya 33. Verse)
Since Batlamyus (b.h. 85-165 a.d.), the solar system has been recognized as the Geocentric System. For the first time, Copernicus (p.p.1473-1543) said it was a "heliosentric/solar-centric" system instead of Batlamyus's ground-centric system. The scientific explanation of the orbit is only the 17th century. It was built by German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler in the 19th century.
However, in the Qur'an about fifteen centuries ago, along with different verses, especially the 5th century of the Surah Rahman. "The sun and the moon are moving according to an account." But interestingly, the word "husban" is the word "husban". "Husban" is a sign of the thinness of the account that the human mind is too punctual to grasp.
The Arabic word expressing the movement in the verse is the "yasbahun" who implies that the idea of movement produced by a moving object is the movement of a person's legs on the ground, or the movement of swimming in the water. When it comes to celestial bodies, the person is forced to translate it as "travelling with its own movement", according to the original meaning.
Day and Night
He created the heavens and the earth in true (proportions): He makes the Night overlap the Day, and the Day overlap the Night: He has subjected the sun and the moon (to His law): Each one follows a course for a time appointed. Is not He the Exalted in Power - He Who forgives again and again?
(Az-Zumar 5. Verse)
In the above verse, the movement of the Earth is defined by the word "yukavviru", which means the "tekvir" of the verb root is wrapped around the head, wrapping around a spherical body, such as the winding of the Earth, such as winding, day and night. In addition to the global shape of the Earth, the word is also the most accurate expression of its movement around the Sun. Due to the spherical shape of the Earth and its movement around the Sun, the Sun always illuminates the other side of the Earth when it is in the dark. The side in the shade is covered by the darkness of the night, which will be replaced by the brightness of the day when the Sun rises.
It is a term used for eclipses of the sun and moon. The sun and moon eclipses are natural events programmed by our Lord, which regularly repeats them during fixed periods. For solar or lunar eclipses, the Sun, Moon and Earth must be exactly the same alignment on the same axis. Aligning the Sun, Earth and the Moon in the same alignment is repeated every 18 years, 11 days, 8 hours. This loop is called the Saros cycle.
In the verses in which the Sun (Shams) is mentioned in the Qur'an, 18 words of Allah are mentioned in 11 verses. In 8 of these 11 verses, the Moon is accompanied by Allah and the Sun.
God knows best of all.
The Quran and Modern Science – Dr. Maurice Bucaille